Improving Your Statistical Inferences

This open educational resource contains information to improve statistical inferences, design better experiments, and report scientific research more transparently.

Daniël Lakens


“No book can ever be finished. While working on it we learn just enough to find it immature the moment we turn away from it.” Karl Popper, The Open Society and its Enemies

This open educational resource integrates information from my blog, my MOOCs Improving Your Statistical Inferences and Improving Your Statistical Questions, and my scientific work. The goal is to make the information more accessible, and easier to update in the future.

I have re-used and adapted (parts of) my own open access articles, without adding quotation marks. Immense gratitude to my collaborators Casper Albers, Farid Anvari, Aaron Caldwell, Harlan Cambell, Nicholas Coles, Lisa DeBruine, Marie Delacre, Zoltan Dienes, Noah van Dongen, Alexander Etz, Ellen Evers, Jaroslav Gottfriend, Seth Green, Christopher Harms, Arianne Herrera-Bennett, Joe Hilgard, Peder Isager, Maximilian Maier, Neil McLatchie, Brian Nosek, Friedrich Pahlke, Pepijn Obels, Amy Orben, Anne Scheel, Janneke Staaks, Leo Tiokhin, Mehmet Tunç, Duygu Uygun Tunç, and Gernot Wassmer, who have contributed substantially to the ideas in this open educational resource. I would also like to thank Zeki Akyol, Emrah Er, Max Ditroilo, Lewis Halsey, Kyle Hamilton, David Lane, Elen LeFoll, Jeremiah Lewis, Mike Smith, and Leong Utek who gave comments on GitHub or Twitter to improve this textbook. The first version of this textbook was created during a sabbatical at Padova University, with thanks to the Advanced Data Analysis for Psychological Science students, and Gianmarco Altoè and Ughetta Moscardino for their hospitality.

Thanks to Dale Barr and Lisa DeBruine for the webexercises package that is used to create the interactive questions at the end of each chapter. Thanks to Nick Brown for his editing service.

If you find any mistakes, or have suggestions for improvement, you can submit an issue on the GitHub page of this open educational resource. You can also download a pdf or epub version (click the download button in the menu on the top left). This work is shared under a CC-BY-NC-SA License. You can cite this resource as:

Lakens, D. (2022). Improving Your Statistical Inferences. Retrieved from

You can check the Change Log at the end of this book to track updates over time, or to find the version number if you prefer to cite a specific version of this regularly updated textbook.

This work is dedicated to Kyra, the love of my life.

Picture of the author Daniel Lakens

Daniël Lakens

Eindhoven University of Technology